Using recent advances both in nanoscale materials and technologies, as well as in understanding of chemical reactions, and with advanced diagnostic equipment and computational techniques, JCAP scientists will mimic the natural photosynthetic process, using inexpensive, non-toxic and durable components. The process under development, like natural photosynthesis, has several distinct components and steps: a light harvesting apparatus captures light and uses the energy to generate separated charge carriers and create currents and voltages that drive chemical reactions such as CO2 reduction or water splitting. The reactions involve catalysts to create the chemical conditions needed to creack ambient water molecules and, thereby, form hydrogen and oxygen. Other catalysts reduce carbon dioxide to form liquid fuel molecules. Compnonents made of inorganic materials, for improved durability, will be arranged in a polymer membrance to allow passage of protons, seprate the products, maintain charge neutrality, and prevent recombination.